Managememt of Aggressive Behavior

Module three of three and written test


Management of Aggressive Behavior and Conflict Resolution

1 - 202 4

Weapons and Conflict can be a recipe for disaster

In this module you will learn police proven techniques of conflict resolution and how to manage aggressive behavior.

The use of a weapon is more than the operation mechanical device. It is the personality and mindset of the user “ The person behind the weapon ” Some of the personality traits a person with a weapon should have are: The ability to communicate with others. The ability to think and operate under normal and stressful events. The ability to deescalate and control potentially dangerous conditions. The person should not be prone to impulse decision making, or poorly thought-out actions. Don’t let peer pressure influence your decisions to do the right thing. This can be especially true in a group setting where the pressure is the greatest.

Conflict Resolution and Person Safety 2 7 min of video 1 6 pages

20 question written Est time 2. 5 hours

Table of Contents: How to ---- Avoid – Evade -Escape – Respond to a criminal attack Space (Proxemics) Zones of safety from a potential threat How to use the police officer interview position to enhance your safety The police color code of preparedness Voice projection to help control the situation Fight or Flight syndrome The dos and don’ts of Personal Conduct to Minimize Violence Physiological Reactions to A Life-threatening Encounter Road Rage 20 question Test link on last page of the module

A Law Enforcement Education Video that will help enhance your learning experience.


MOAB 18 min run Recognize signs of aggressive behavior. Learn verbal and nonverbal skills that will help you manage aggressive behavior.

Click on Video



THe Principles Of Personal Protection In Public Areas

AVOID—EVADE—ESCAPE—RESPOND Avoid the confrontation:

1. Be alert and aware of your surroundings. 2. Avoid suspicious situations 3. Avoid unlit parking lots and neighborhoods that are not well light 4. Jog or walk with a companion 5. Do not park in remote areas (including parking ramps) 6. use valet parking or have a store employee or security walk you to your car 7. Avoid ATM machines that are hidden from public view 8. In remote areas at stop signs always leave enough room between the car in front and the car in back of you in case you need to escape. 9. Keep car doors locked while driving.

Evade the confrontation: 1. Attempt to seek another direction of travel 2. Don’t allow yourself to be cut off (ambush) 3. Plan an avenue of escape Escape 1. Utilize any possible safe avenue of escape

This will……………….. 1. Buy time to set up a defensive position, if escape is not possible 2. Prepare you to use force if necessary to protect life 3. Help protect you from civil or criminal liability by having taken defensive and evasive measures before using force. 4. Responding When the threat of an attack or actual attack occurs; usually you the potential victim is the first responder at the scene to protect yourself. What you do at that time may be critical to your survival. 5. If you cannot escape: Create a reactionary gap by creating time to respond by (1 ) Creating distance (2) putting an obstacle between you and the attacker.

6. implement a self defense response: The proper response and use of tactics is important............... • Select the proper tactics by applying a legal response that works • Selection of proper self defense equipment that is legal and effective. • Skill with self defense equipment will allow you to use it to its optimum capability.

Handgun Training Specialists

Avoiding Criminal Attack and Controlling a Violent Encounter


Space (Proxemics) and your safety zone

Gray area = Reaction gap

= Danger - stay out

Always be aware of how your distance from the other person affects him/her and your safety. Being in the other persons personal zone may make them uncomfortable and put you at risk of an unexpected attack with no time to react.

Handgun Training Specialists

Avoiding Criminal Attack and Controlling a Violent Encounte r


Officer / Civilian Interview Position



You do Not Stand Here

position 1

position 1

The Safest place to talk to a potential adversary is in front, 45 degrees off to the side and at least six feet away (position 1). Do not stand directly in front of this person and within arms reach ( position 0 ). This will leave you vulnerable to a sudden attack. Officer

In conducting a field interview, position yourself at an angle to the suspect and keep your gun side away from his immediate reach. Do not let people behind you or in any postion where you cannot see them and mantain a safe distance. Caution! There is a potential for danger to yourself if you are interviewing (or trying to con trol) more than one person at a time without backup or securing the other people. One person can present a dangerous threat

Handgun Training Specialists

Avoiding Criminal Attack and Controlling a Violent Encounter


1. Tone 2. Volume 3. Cadence To run or to fight If you can avoid or escape the situation safely, do so! To run - variables are: • Are you running to a safer place? Are you familiar with your surroundings? • Are you dressed to run? • Will you be able to out run him? • If you run will you be assaulted from behind? To fight - variables are: • How prepared are you: knowledge, skills, confidence and self defense devices. To defend yourself you will need the right skills and tools and the confidence to use them. • Are you dressed to fight? Your goal is survive the confrontation with your life intact and as little injury as possible. If you have decided to defend yourself, make it a quick decisive strike and leave. Attempt to stop a confrontation (but don’t be confrontational) Avoid adding fuel to the fire COLOR CODING CONCEPT ( your mental color of preparedness) White - Unprepared (Not aware of surroundings, not prepared to recognize a threat to your safety ) Yellow - Relaxed alertness (aware of surroundings) Orange - Unspecified Alert (awareness of cover, lanes of possible escape, the body’s alarm reaction begins) Red - Encounter assailant (you are facing one or more persons who want to cause you harm or take your life ). Black - Assault in Progress (Normal response is counteracting with appropriate self defense measures and try to escape) Voice projection can help control the situation The three elements of “ controlled” communication

Don’t rebut claims to an angry person Don’t confront with counter aggression Don’t argue and don’t order Negotiate and conciliate

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Avoiding Criminal Attack and Controlling a Violent Encounter


Personal Conduct to Minimize Violence Follow these suggestions in your daily interactions with people to de- escalate potentially violent situations. if at any time a person’s behavior starts to escalate beyond your comfort zone, disen gage and re-evaluate. DO

• Call a person by their name • Project calmness: move and speak slowly, quietly and confidently. • Be an empathetic listener encourage the person to talk and listen patiently.

• Focus your attention on the other person to let them know you are interested in what they have to say. • Maintain a relaxed yet attentive posture and position yourself at a right angle rather than directly in front of the other person. • Acknowledge the person’s feelings that you can see he or she is upset • Ask for small specific favors such as asking the person to move to a quieter area, if needed. • Establish ground rules if unreasonable behavior persists, calmly describe the consequences of any violent behavior • Use delaying tactics which will give the person time to calm down. For example, offer a drink of water • Be reassuring and point out choices, break big problems into smaller more manageable problems • Accept criticism in a positive way, when a complaint might be true, use statements like “You’re probably right” or “It was my fault “ If the criticism sounds unwarranted ask clarifying questions. Don’t • Use styles of communication which generate hostility such as apathy, brush off, coldness condescen sion, robotics going strictly by the rules or giving the run-around. • Pose in challenging stances such as standing directly opposite someone, hands on hips or crossing your arms. Avoid any physical contact, finger pointing or fixed eye Contact. • Make sudden movements which can be seen as threatening, notice the tone volume and rate of your speech. • Challenge threaten or dare the individual. • Never belittle the person or make him/her feel foolish. • Criticize or act impatiently toward the individual.

• Try to make the situation seem less serious than it is. • Make false statements Or promises you cannot keep. • Try to impart a lot of technical or complicated information when emotions are high.

•Take sides or agree with distractions. • Invade the individual’s personal space. Make sure there is a space of 3' to 6' between you and the person.

Handgun Training Specialists

Avoiding Criminal Attack and Controlling a Violent Encounter


Physiological Reactions To A Life-threatening Encounter No matter what your level of training or how capable you believe yourself to be in handling stressful situations; you will experience, to a greater or lesser degree, a number of involuntary physiological changes during a serious defensive situation. General Bodily Responses to Imminent Danger . In most cases, there will be a period of time be tween when you first perceive a threat and an attack actually occurs. This may occur, for example, when you awaken to hear an intruder breaking in downstairs. During this period you probably will experience a number of bodily responses to imminent danger. Your heart rate and respiration will increase (to provide more blood and oxygen to the muscles and brain), your pupils will dilate (to take in more light and see the threat better), and your muscles will be tighter in anticipation of sudden movement. Adrenaline Rush . One of the ways your body prepares you for flight or fight is through the release of the hormone adrenaline into your bloodstream. This powerful chemical heightens the senses and in creases strength, and can also cause trembling of the muscles. This trembling can make it more difficult to stand or sit still or, more important, to hold the firearm steady. This trembling can be mistaken for fear by both the assailant and victim. In reality, it is a physical reaction to the excess of adrenaline that has been dumped into the bloodstream in preparation for an attack. This is also what causes the uncontrol lable shaking sometimes experienced after a confrontation is over: the body is no longer utilizing all the adrenaline that was released. Note that although the heightened awareness caused by adrenaline may enable you to more readily perceive a threat, it may also predispose you to overreact to any sudden stimulus. Loss of Fine Motor Skills. Stress-regardless of its source-results in a loss of fine motor skills. This is often experienced in daily life. For example, it is much harder to unlock your front door with a key when you are rushing to get to a ringing telephone inside. In sports, too, it is common for many athletes to perform better in practice than under the stress of actual competition. During an attack, your loss of fine motor control will manifest itself in many ways. For example, you will find it more difficult to load car tridges into a pistol magazine or revolver cylinder, or to work the combination lock on a gun box or gun safe. To compensate for this loss of fine motor control, the NRA Personal Protection in the Home Course teaches gun handling skills that involve gross motor skills only. This is also why well designed defen sive handguns are simple to operate, and feature controls that are easily and naturally actuated by large muscle movements. Perceptual Changes During A Threatening Encounter Survivors of violent attacks-as well as those who have experienced certain other extremely stressful situations-commonly report that, during the attack or stressful event, their perceptions of visual and auditory stimuli, as well as the passage of time, were altered. These alterations-tunnel vision, auditory exclusion and time dilation-are involuntary, and may have evolved as a survival mechanism to better focus all of one’s senses and concentration on an immediate source of danger While these perceptual changes may have worked extremely well in enabling our ancestors to fight saber-toothed tigers, they do not always provide as much of a benefit when dealing with one or more intelligent, determined human assailants. Tunnel Vision . Under the stress of an imminent or actual attack, you will be focused almost exclusively on the perceived threat, and will be virtually oblivious to anything going on elsewhere in your visual field. This phenomenon is known as tunnel vision. Tunnel vision can be broken by developing certain training habits (such as lowering the firearm and assessing the area after firing at a target). It is important to avoid tunnel vision during a defensive shoot ing situation, because it can cause you to fail to recognize additional threats (or innocent persons) that may lurk just outside your immediate field of view.

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Avoiding Criminal Attack and Controlling a Violent Encounter Auditory Exclusion. During a violent encounter you will also undergo auditory exclusion, a condition during which extraneous sounds may be inaudible. Sounds emanating from outside your visual percep tion-and even those from within it-may go unheard. People involved in shootings often report that the sound of their own gunshots was no louder to them than a popgun. You can at least partially counteract the effects of auditory exclusion by screaming your commands to your assailant. Not only does this help break through the veil of auditory exclusion; it also serves to intimidate him. Keep in mind that you will not be the only one suffering auditory exclusion; your assailant as well as any family members; police officers or innocent bystanders who may be involved in the situation will experi ence it as well. Time Dilation. Time dilation refers to the perception of slowed time that occurs during extreme stress. You may see the movements of both your assailant and yourself as happening in slow motion, and you lose the ability to accurately determine the passage of time. A few seconds of actual time may seem to you to be much longer in duration. The phenomenon of time dilation is the reason why, when you are first alerted to strange sounds or other early warnings of a potential threat, you should wait much longer than you may initially think is necessary before you relax your guard or emerge from hiding. The aftermath of a defensive shooting Complete preparation for defensive firearm use involves more than practicing the shooting fundamen tals, shooting positions, and visualization exercises. True, when you are confronted by an assailant, your first concern is prevailing in the encounter, and the shooting skills you have learned are of paramount importance. When the shooting is over, however, you may experience emotional turmoil, social ostra cism and even legal sanctions. These are all common aspects of the aftermath of a defensive shooting, and require prior mental preparation just as effective shooting and gun handling require physical prepa ration. An important part of this mental preparation-indeed, a step that should be taken before you even decide to incorporate a firearm into your defense strategy-is to ensure that defensive firearm use is consonant with your own values. Ask yourself the following questions: Am I prepared to take the life of another human being to save my own life or that of loved one? Does my religion permit the taking of a life in self-defense? Do my personal moral standards permit the taking of a life in self-defense? Am I prepared to tolerate the judgement of my family, friends, and neighbors if I must defend myself with lethal force? Even when you are justified and forced to do so, shooting a predatory criminal is not a pleasant experience. Realize this and plan for it in your mental training. MOAB008

Handgun Training Specialists

Avoiding Criminal Attack and Controlling a Violent Encounter


Emotional aftermath of a Defensive shooting After prevailing in a violent encounter, you may experience a number of emotions. These emotions often occur in the order listed below, but are not universal; some people may not exhibit any of them, while others will experience some or all of the following emotional reactions, butin varying sequences. Elation. Often there is an immediate feeling of elation at having survived and prevailed in a life threatening encounter. In today’s social and political atmosphere, attack survivors may feel that they should downplay or ignore this emotion. The survivor who feels this elation is not cold bloodedly rejoicing at the death of another, however. Rather, it is a euphoria resulting from both a sense of relief at having survived, and an invol untary biochemical reaction resulting from the release of endorph ins and other sensory- and mood enhancing chemicals into the bloodstream. The feeling experienced by the victor in a defensive shoot ing is similar to-and just as uncontrollable as-the rush felt by a skydiver when the parachute opens. It is important to realize that there is nothing wrong with a momentary or lasting feeling of elation at having prevailed. Often this emotion is quickly followed by guilt at having felt elation in the first place. Revulsion. After the initial elation at having survived the violent confrontation, there often arises a feeling of revulsion at what has happened. The victorious victim may become nauseous, vomit, or even faint from the emotional shock of seeing the result of the confrontation. The absence of revulsion does not mean you are a bad or cold person. Your own experiences (such as military combat duty or work as an emergency medical technician) may have given you a greater tolerance for the unpleasant consequences of a shooting. However, in preparing for the aftermath of defensive firearm use, you must recognize that the scene of a shooting contains many distasteful and even sickening sights and sounds. While you cannot completely steel yourself to what you will see and hear, visualizing potential outcomes may decrease the distress you experience after a shooting. Remorse. Many survivors experience remorse at having killed an attacker. This has nothing to do with the moral justifiability of their actions. It is simply a normal feeling of sadness or sorrow at having been forced to kill.

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Road Rage

What we know:

• It takes 2 or more people to engage in road rage. • Anyone can be engaged in a road rage incident. • The longer the incident is allowed to go on the more angry people become and the danger i ncreases. • Road Rage can involve other innocent drivers. • Road Rage can lead to injury, death and significant criminal and civil legal issues. • Mot o r vehicles are deadly weapons.


Click on picture for video - 7 minute run time A Study in Road Rage Video Incident review Participants 1. Toyota SUV with two adults and one child 2. Chevrolet PU truck with three adults Recap

Chev PU truck possibly cut off the Toyota SUV. Toyota peruses the PU truck for about 30 minutes to the truck drivers’ home where a fight breaks out. The Toyota driver points a handgun at the occupants of the PU truck and accidentally discharges the firearm. Then Toyota driver fires rounds into the back window of PU. Toyota driver faces serious felony charges and possible jail time.


Questions - Be prepared to answer these questions regarding the above video The questions are on this modules written test. You will have Access to video on test. 1. Anyone can be engaged in a road rage incident. True False 2. The longer the incident is allowed to go on the angrier people become and the danger increases. True False 3. Road Rage can lead to injury, death and significant criminal and civil legal issues. True False 4. A good initial course of action is to call 911 as soon as possible and drive to a public area. True False 5. Do not get out of your vehicle to confront another person. True False 6. A firearm is the best method to stop a road rage aggressor. True False 7. Who was the initial aggressor?

Vehicle one Vehicle two 8. Did either person try to stop the incident? Yes No 9. Where both willing participants in this incident? yes no

10. When was the initial 911 call made ?

11. A good choice action to follow is to AVOID—EVADE—ESCAPE—RESPOND. Dont let anger and emotions drive the situation. True False



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